“Research in the last several years has shown that while many of these issues (eg, substance use, behavioral issues, and physical health concerns) have been treated symptomatically, there is actually an underlying issue that has been missed. Many of these negative impacts are results of maladapted neural connections in the brain. Further, research has shown that neural connections, which are particularly vulnerable in the early stages of life (even infancy), can be disrupted and damaged during periods of extreme and repetitive stress – “toxic stress” – like that which is experienced during ACEs.”  From the American Academy of Pediatrics, “The Resilience Project, WE can stop Toxic Stress”  More information in this article: https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/resilience/Pages/ACEs-and-Toxic-Stress.aspx